The grape variety or cultivar is the heart of a wine and determines the basis of flavours.   The harvest takes place when the grape reaches “optimum ripeness” which is based on a combination of sugar, acid, tannin, colour and other chemical levels.  The makeup of the grape at the moment of harvest will determine the quality of the resulting wine. The skin is the source of colour, tannins and flavour compounds, giving the wine its distinctive character. The stalks contain bitter tannins and are rarely used in winemaking.  The bloom or wax coat on the outside of the skin contains natural yeasts, which are used for spontaneous or natural fermentation.  The wax also protects the grape from disease and pests. The pips contain bitter…